THE STAR NEWSPAPER: Malaysia News
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Breast cancer, cancer that are
malignant -- life-threatening-tumors -- that develop in one or both
breasts. The interior of the female breast, which consists mostly of fatty
and fibrous connective tissues, is divided into about 20 sections called
lobes. Each lobe is further subdivided into a collection of lobules, which
are structures that contain small milk-producing glands. These glands
secrete milk into a complex system of tiny ducts. The ducts carry the milk
through the breast and converge in a collecting chamber located just below
the nipple. Breast cancer is either invasive (spreading) or noninvasive
(generally known as in situ -- that is, confined to the site of origin).
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma, an invasive cancer, penetrates the wall of
a duct, and is the most common form of breast cancer, constituting about
70% of all cases. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma, an invasive cancer that
has spread through the wall of a lobule, accounts for about 8% of all
It is much more likely to appear in both breasts, often in
several separate locations. Noninvasive breast cancers include ductal
carcinoma in situ (also called intraductal carcinoma) and lobular
carcinoma in situ and account for about 10% of all cases. These cancer are termed noninvasive because at the time of diagnosis there is no
evidence of invasion through the basement membrane, a layer separating the
affected cells from the underlying connective tissue, which is rich in
blood vessels. Ductal carcinoma in situ is considered to be an early
malignancy; if left untreated, it may sometimes progress to an invasive,
infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Lobular carcinoma in situ seems to be a
marker for an increased risk of cancer in both breasts. In at least 20% of
these cases, invasive cancer (often of the ductal variety) eventually
develops, sometimes in a different location from the original lobular
carcinoma in situ.
Who Gets Breast Cancer?
Age, Gender, and Ethnicity
Experts estimate that
175,000 cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 1999 in US.
At this time, age is the major identifiable risk factor. More than 80% of
breast cancer cases occur in women over 50, and there is a one in nine
chance of having breast cancer if a woman lives to 85. At 40, however, her
odds are one in 217, and at 50 they are one in 50. Cancer in women younger
than 30 is very rare, accounting for only 1.5% of all breast cancer cases.
Native Americans and Asians have lower rates of breast cancer than whites,
Hispanics, and African Americans. About 1,600 breast cancers will be
diagnosed in men. The mortality rate in African Americans is twice that of
whites. According to one study this higher rate is due not only to
socioeconomic factors but may also reflect biologic differences. African
American patients tend to have larger more aggressive cancers.
Genetic Factors and Family
About 10% of all
women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease. The
mutations in genes known as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are now well-known culprits in
some early-onset breast and ovarian cancers. About half of BRCA1 carriers
have a chance of developing breast cancer by age 70, and according to one
study, about 37% of BRCA2 carriers develop the disease. (These percentages
may be higher in high-risk families.) BRCA2 and BRCA1 traits can be passed
down to the daughter by either the mother or the father. Only about 0.1%
of the population carries them. It should be further noted that a family
history of breast cancer puts a woman at risk for the disease, even if
these genetic mutations are not detected. A defective BRCA gene also
sometimes appears in non inherited breast and ovarian cancer patients.
Cancer may even develop if the normal BRCA1 gene (which is protective) is
either under expressed or, in some cases, appears to "hide"
outside the nucleus of the cell, where it is ineffective.
Researchers have also
identified other defective genes that cause breast cancer, including
BRCA3, p53, and NOEY2 (which is inherited from the father). A mutant gene
for the rare disorder ataxia-telangiectasia may account for many breast
cancers. (The disease itself is rare, requiring two copies of the gene,
but 1% of the population carries a single copy, which is enough to
increase the risk for breast cancer.) Women who have this gene are also
more likely to be harmed by radiation, including that from mammography.
Over-Exposure to Estrogen
Because breast tissue
is highly sensitive to estrogens, the longer a women is exposed to
estrogen over her lifetime, the higher the risk for breast cancer. In
fact, one study reported that blood tests measuring high levels of
estrogen and testosterone may eventually identify older women at increased
risk for breast cancer.
and Late Menopause. Women who started menstruation early (before age 12)
or went through menopause late (after age 55) are at slightly higher risk,
as are those who never had children or had them after the age of 30.
Abortion. Pregnancy plays an odd dual role in breast cancer. It appears to
increase the risk for up to 15 years following the first birth,
particularly in older women, but after that women who have given birth
have a lower risk than those who have not. Subsequent births do not seem
to have any additional impact. Studies have detected an increased risk for
breast cancer in women who have had abortions, possibly because high
estrogen levels occur in the first trimester when abortions are most often
performed (estrogen levels tend not to be high when a natural miscarriage
occurs). The increased risk from abortion is most likely to be very small,
Oral Contraception. A
small risk for breast cancer appears to develop in women while taking oral
contraceptives and for about 10 years after stopping the Pill.
Therapy. A number of studies have indicated an increased risk for breast
cancer in women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Although studies
indicate that the risk exists only with long-term therapy, one study
reported that even one year of HRT could increase the chances of breast
cancer. Of further concern for women taking HRT, breast tissue density
increases and mammograms may miss some breast cancers. In virtually all
studies, however, the real dangers for most women taking HRT are very low.
Breast cancer that do occur in women taking hormone replacement therapy
also tend to be smaller and less aggressive than most. Some experts argue,
however, that the risk of breast cancer from HRT may be underestimated,
because until recently women who took HRT tended to be at risk for
osteoporosis or heart disease and so were likely to have low estrogen
levels. Studies, then, may not yet be reporting the risks for women with
normal or high estrogen levels who are now taking HRT to reduce menopausal
symptoms or to prevent Alzheimer's disease. Many experts believe that any
risk for breast cancer should be weighed against the other health benefits
provided by HRT.
A history of
proliferative breast disease or atypical cell growth, known as hyperplasia,
is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Benign fibroid tumors may
increase risk after many years, particularly if they are complex, such as
cysts or if they cause scarring.
Studies have reported
mixed effects on the association between obesity and breast cancer. Some
suggest that simply being overweight is not a risk factor but that
excessive weight gain after menopause is. A number of studies have
reported an association between being overweight as a child or young woman
and a lower risk for breast cancer. (Estrogen levels are actually reduced
in the presence of high fat levels in premenopausal women.) Women with
heavy dense bones are at higher risk for breast cancer, since estrogen
helps build bone mass. There have been reports of a link between increased
height and breast cancer risk, but one controlled study of almost 10,000
women found no association at all. However, women who reached their
maximum height at age 18 may have a lower breast cancer risk than women
who reached their full height at 13 or younger -- again probably because
they had higher levels of estrogen at an earlier age.
Estrogen-like Chemicals. Chemicals with estrogen-like effects -- called
xenoestrogens -- that are found in pesticides and other common industrial
products have been suspects for the increased risk of breast cancer found
in specific regions. A number of studies have found no danger to most
women from two of the most common environmental estrogens -- PCBs and DDT.
Other estrogen-like chemicals that have a stronger association with breast
cancer include dieldrin and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Although such
chemicals are very weak estrogens, one study stirred alarm by reporting
that although exposure to a single weak-estrogen compound poses no risk,
combinations of them result in extremely powerful estrogenic chemicals.
Many women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage
produced children with abnormal reproductive systems, and there is some
indication that it increased the risk for breast cancer in their
Electromagnetic Fields. Heavy exposure to radiation is a significant risk
factor for breast cancer. Women who were treated with high doses of
radiation for childhood cancers face a high risk for breast cancer in
adulthood. Studies have been conflicting on increased risks from intensive
exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). If any risk exists, however, it
is likely to be very small.
Reduced levels of melatonin -- a powerful hormone that affects sleep and
other vital functions -- has been associated with breast cancer. This
might account for the higher incidence observed in flight attendants.
Acupuncture and Herbal Treatment is available and provern effective.
|Mdm M.K. Chan (56), from Malaysia suffered from 4th stage Breast Cancer
File No:- 17294
Mdm M.K. Chan was diagnosed of 4th stage breast cancer. She started seeing Master on 9th April 2009 until 21 March 2013. During this period, she kept asking how long more she needs to take the herbs. During her initial visit to The TOLE, she was advised to undergo intensive treatment for 4 months.
Her condition deteriorates when she started tapering down the intake of herbs from initially 1 packet a day to 1 packet every 3 days for a few years. But she is still surviving and goes to work daily.
After a famous oncology doctor passed away in early 2013 (apparently this famous doctor was her previous consultant doctor at Gleneagles), she stopped coming for treatment. Master thinks that she is giving up because she felt a lot for the famous oncology doctor.
Below table shows the result of her CEA test during the treatment period with THE TOLE:
Type of Test
10 Apr 2009
10 Apr 2009
(0.0 – 31.0)
30 Apr 2009
30 Apr 2009
(0.0 – 31.0)
~ Find out the Type of Cancer here ~
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